Treatment was necessary due to the advanced state of deterioration of the paintings and the unstable conservation conditions of the entire complex. During the many years in which the cave was left unattended it received unauthorized visitors, was severely vandalized and employed a shelter by shepherds. The soot produced by fires within the cave had covered the paintings and sculpted surfaces, making them illegible. Graffiti and the attempted removal of portions of the frescoes have resulted in irreversible damage to these important remains. Another cause of deterioration linked to the abandonment of the cave was the presence of numerous bat colonies, which had soiled the surfaces with guano and urine.
The conservation treatment aimed to increase the legibility of the surfaces, restore the consistency of the original materials and allow for future conservation of the entire structure. As well as direct technical intervention on the surfaces, treatment phases included planning for passive protection systems, and the study and reconstruction of missing sections of the cycle with digital methods as a way of preparing didactic and informative materials for visitors related to the preservation of this valuable and vulnerable site.