Site Conservation during the Rescue Excavations


Nardi, R. and Schneider, K.

2013


Zeugma has been affected by a major regional hydroelectric project involving the construction of several dams on the Euphrates River in southern east Turkey. During the summer of 2000, the reservoir for the Birecik Dam flooded 30 per cent of the ancient city of Zeugma and the entire ancient city of Apamea on the opposite bank. This chapter reports on the conservation carried out at Zeugma by the Centro di Conservazione Archeologica – Roma (CCA) from June to October 2000, as well as conservation work carried out on finds and maintenance of the archaeological site of Zeugma in a three-year period following the impoundment of the Birecik Dam.


Download Nardi-Schneider_2013_Site conservation and the rescue excavations.pdf (1.51 MB)

Conservation of the mosaic of the Transfiguration at Saint Catherine's


Nardi, R. and Zizola, C.

2013


The Monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai was built under the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century, on a site that had been venerated long before as the place where Moses encountered God in the form of the burning bush (Exodus 3:1-10). In the fourth century AD, a small shrine had stood there, built at the request of the Empress Helena, the mother of Costantine. For centuries, the high number of pilgrims, monks and hermits who had come to honor this holy place had endured the uninterrupted harassment of raiders and the harsh circumstances of the desert. This paper describes the conservation intervention of the mosaic of the Transfiguration, located in the apse of the basilica of the Monastery of St. Catherine's, as well as the methodological choices that have led to the conservation strategy that was adopted. As with all works of art, mosaics do not enjoy eternal life because of their very nature; to the contrary, they are fragile and need care and attention. Alarmed by clear signs of decay in the mosaic, the monastic community of St. Catherine's embarked on a conservation program and entrusted the work to the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica. The treatment, which began in November 2005, has been long, delicate and complex.


Download Nardi-Zizola_2013_Sinaiticus.pdf (1.25 MB)

Le sculture di Monte Prama viste da vicino


Costanzi Cobau, A.

2011


Opuscolo informativo di fine cantiere, nel quale si illustrano tutte le fasi del Progetto Mont'e Prama, Prenda 'e Zenia (letteralmente: Monte delle Palme, Preziosità di una Stirpe) eseguito dal CCA. L’opuscolo descrive i frammenti, le sculture e il sito dal quale provengono. Vengono esposte la varie fasi del progetto: la documentazione, il restauro, la conservazione e musealizzazione dei reperti. Si descrivono inoltre le operazioni di diagnostica, studio delle tecniche originali, le attività di comunicazione con il pubblico, restauro virtuale, design e creazione dei supporti.


Download Costanzi-Cobau_2011_Le sculture di Monte Prama viste da vicino.pdf (1.59 MB)

Una nuova tomba dipinta della necropoli di Sa Pala Larga (Bonorva)


Costanzi Cobau, A., Sartor, F. e Usai, L.

2011


Recenti indagini hanno portato alla scoperta di un importante ipogeo, ricco di decorazioni soprattutto dipinte nella necropoli di Sa Pala Larga di Bonorva in Sardegna, che già in passato aveva restituito significativi esempi di arte funeraria prenuragica. L’articolo descrive la necropoli e la sequenza stratigrafica dello scavo della tomba. Vengono esposti anche gli elementi descrittivi dell’architettura e della decorazione del monumento. Infine, si analizzano le condizioni conservative delle pitture.


Download Costanzi-Cobau Sartor Usai_2011_Una nuova tomba dipinta della necropoli di Sa Pala Larga (Bonorva).pdf (1.2 MB)

Il restauro del mosaico della Trasfigurazione nel monastero di Santa Caterina nel Sinai


Nardi, R.

2011


The Monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai was built under the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century AD, on a site that had been venerated long before as the place where Moses encountered God in the form of the burning bush (Exodus 3:1-10). The results of the restoration of the mosaic of the Transfiguration in the Monastery of Saint Catherine in Sinai were presented by Roberto Nardi on June 28, 2007 in Rome at the Pontificia Accademia di Archeologia in Palazzo della Cancelleria. The text of this conference is now published by the Tipografia Vaticana in the volume LXXXII 2009-2010 of the Rendiconti.


Download Nardi_2011_Il restauro del mosaico della Trasfigurazione nel monastero di Santa Caterina nel Sinai.PDF (4.96 MB)

Restoration of the 'Mosaic of the Transfiguration' in St. Catherine Monastery on Mount Sinai


Nardi, R.

2011


The Monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai was built under the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century AD, on a site that had been venerated long before as the place where Moses encountered God in the form of the burning bush (Exodus 3:1-10). For centuries, the high number of pilgrims, monks and hermits who had come to honor this holy place had endured the uninterrupted harassment of raiders and the harsh circumstances of the desert. Located at the height of 1.500 meters in a ravine at the foot of the Gebel Musa, where Moses received the Tables of the Law, the massive, fortfied walls of the monastery both enclose and protect the life of the monks who live there, their daily routine governed by the ringing of the church bells that call them to prayer from sunrise to sunset, according to the monastic traditions of the Greek Orthodox rite. The buildings within the walls form an ancient city, with manifold architectural styles from various ages. Only a short distance from the church's bell tower, stands the minaret of a small mosque: evidence of the peaceful coexistence between religions and peoples.


Download Nardi_2011_Restoration of the Mosaic of the Transfiguration in St. Catherine Monastery on Mount Sinai.pdf (2.26 MB)

Il mosaico del Monastero di Santa Caterina nel Sinai. Riflessioni sul trattamento delle lacune


Nardi, R., Zizola, C. and de Guichen G.

2011


The text presents the method used for the treatment of gaps in the mosaic of the Transfiguration in St. Catherine's Monastery in Sinai, conserved by CCA in the years 2005-2010. While recognizing this issue a relatively minor role in the hierarchy of the aspects that make up a complex program such as the one implemented in Santa Caterina, the debate that preceded the decision and the importance of the monument, however, make a case that could take a sample value (positive or negative) within a dialectical methodology that has left on this issue and rivers and mountains of pages of words.


Download Nardi et al_2011_Il mosaico del Monastero di Santa Caterina nel Sinai.pdf (508.38 KB)

Conservation in archaeology: case studies in the Mediterranean region


Nardi, R.

2010


Roberto Nardi explores developments in the field of archaeological conservation, especially in regards to documentation and the study of monuments, preventive conservation, training, and public outreach. Conservation in archeology is a practice that is undergoing a continuous evolution, both in principles and in techniques. This article illustrates the contribution that the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, provided to this process during the last 30 years. The conservation of the arch of Septimus Severus in the Roman Forum and of the Capitoline Museums in Rome, the mosaics conservation in Israel, the field conservation in Zeugma, Turkey, the conservation of the mosaic of the Trasfiguration in the monastery of Saint Catherine in Sinai, the conservation program of the collection of prehistoric sculptures of Monte Prama in Sardinia, Italy, are presented and critically reviewed.

http://www.archaeological.org/news/hca/3328.


Download Nardi_2010_Conservation in Archaeology.pdf (1.3 MB)

Dalla Sardegna sculture nuragiche. Monte 'e Prama Prenda 'e Zenia


Boninu, A. e Costanzi Cobau, A.

2009


l progetto di restauro e conservazione delle sculture di Monte e’ Prama di Cabras, conosciute  per alcuni esemplari esposti nel Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Cagliari, ha suscitato notevole interesse nel pubblico, poiché si è attribuita una particolare valenza identitaria. I frammenti di busti, teste, braccia e modellini di nuraghe hanno alimentato la richiesta di informazione sull’intero ritrovamento. Questo è il primo resoconto dei lavori di restauro e conservazione dei frammenti in corso.


Download Boninu Costanzi-Cobau_2009_Dalla Sardegna sculture nuragiche.pdf (222.55 KB)

Mosaic Conservation: Fifty Years of Modern Practice


de Guichen, G. and Nardi, R.

2008


Mosaic conservation practice went through a significant evolution in the past decades. Fifty years ago mosaics were considered as single objects, without a context, and interventions were carried out without adequate planning. Few options were considered in conservation strategies, and detachment was basically the only options taken into consideration. Professionals working on mosaics were essentially craftsmen, workmen and builders; the materials used were limited to cement, gypsum and glues. This presentation debates the change of philosophy and practice of mosaic conservation that shaped the current state of the art in the profession.


Download de Guichen Nardi_Mosaic Conservation- Fifty Years of modern Practice_2008.pdf (1.35 MB)

Conservation for presentation: a key for protecting monuments


Nardi, R.

2008


Abandonment, neglect, poor planning or inadequate presentation of cultural heritage are common occurrences. In some cases, the only way to prevent destruction and abandonment is to undertake treatment specifically designed for public consumption, with the aim of recovering forgotten or undervalued heritage. Accepting this premise, in certain circumstances conservation treatment suggests technical solutions that are closer to restoration than conservation. This type of situation has occurred several times in the course of the activities of the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, and has been approached as described in the article. The interventions were carried out in Israel in the Large Baths and Liscat Hamefaked in Masada, and in Radà, Yemen, in the Madrasa Amiriya. A case still in progress, the conservation of gigantic stone statues from the tenth century BC from Cabras, Sardinia, Italy, concludes the article.


Download Nardi_2008_Conservation for Presentation.pdf (1.53 MB)

Summary Conclusions and Recommendations of the 9th Conference of ICCM


Nardi, R. and Teutonico, J. M

2008


The conclusions of the IX conference of the ICCM, International Committee for the Conservation of Mosaics, represent an overview of the main issues, trends, and observations that emerged during the various thematic sessions. It is hoped that this overview provides some indication of the major points raised at the conference and illustrates significant trends of thought.


Download Nardi Teutonico_2008_Summary Conclusions and Recommendations of the 9th Conference of ICCM.pdf (578.06 KB)

The Legacy of Nora, Sardinia: a project for the Conservation, Restoration and Maintenance of Mosaics


Zizola C.

2008


This paper describes the conservation and maintenance project of the 720 m2 floor mosaics of the archaeological site of Nora, Sardinia, designed by CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, in 2002 for the Soprintendenza Archeologica of Cagliari. Nora is a site with high number of visitors and difficult climatic conditions due to the marine environment. The 2002 project was based on an analysis of the state of conservation of the mosaics and of the performance of the previous restorations and reburials. The result was a detailed technical program for treating the mosaics and a general plan for the ordinary maintenance of the mosaics and site. This project today forms the basis for the current management plan of the Soprintendenza for Nora. The present paper compares the results of previous restorations and reburials with more recent strategies, provides a time estimate for technical treatments and presents the ordinary maintenance program that includes a list of the operations.


Download Zizola_2008_The Legacy of Nora, Sardinia a Project for the Conservation Restoration and Maintenance of Mosaics.pdf (1.82 MB)

Mosaic Conservation. Fifty Years of Modern Practice


De Guichen, G. and Nardi, R.

2006


Mosaics conservation is a practice as old as mosaic-making itself. We can see today ancient mosaics showing patches made as a maintenance practice when the floors were still in use. We are also aware that restoration was an art widely used in past centuries by antiquarians. We might also refer to brilliant examples of restorations implemented during the first decades of the 20th century.


Download de Guichen_Nardi_2006_Mosaic Conservation.pdf (1.55 MB)

The Conservation of the Mosaic of the Transfiguration, Monastery of St. Catherine's, Sinai


Nardi, R. and Zizola, C.

2006


The publication of this booklet was inspired by the conservation treatment for the mosaic of the Transfiguration, located in the apse of the basilica of the Monastery of St. Catherine's in the Sinai. As with all works of art, mosaics do not enjoy eternal life because of their very nature; to the contrary, they are fragile and need care and attention. Alarmed by clear signs of decay in the mosaic, the monastic community of St. Catherine's embarked on a conservation program and entrusted the work to the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, Rome. The treatment, which began in November 2005 and is still ongoing, was long, delicate and complex. The booklet was produced in Arabic, English, French, German, Greek, Italian, Russian and Spanish. It explains the mosaic's history and the conservation treatment, and permits the reader to appreciate the mosaic's beauty through new images. In this way, visitors will take away a souvenir of their visit and an understanding of how much the monks do every day to protect the immense heritage in their care.

Available for download in English, Italian, French, German and Spanish.


Download Nardi-Zizola_2006_The Conservation of the Mosaic of the Trasfiguration.pdf (507.99 KB)
Download Nardi-Zizola_2006_La conservazione del mosaico della Trasfigurazione.pdf (512.5 KB)
Download Nardi-Zizola_2006_Conservation de la Mosaique de la Transfiguration.pdf (513.02 KB)
Download Nardi-Zizola_2006_Die Konservierung des Mosaiks der Verklärung.pdf (468.12 KB)
Download Nardi-Zizola_2006_La conservación del Mosaico de la Transfiguración.pdf (544.07 KB)

Madrasa Amiriya. The Conservation of the Mural Paintings


Al Radi S., Nardi R. and Zizola C.

2005


The Amiriya Madrasa of Radà is one of the most important and significant monuments of Yemen. Constructed in 1504, it represents a jewel of Islamic art and architecture with its three built levels, 600 mof tempera wall paintings and extensive, elaborate plaster decorations. It is notable for the balance achieved between the size of the structures and the refinement of the details. In 2000, the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, was asked to restore the wall paintings that decorate the Prayer Hall, as well as to train six Yemeni technicians how to maintain the wall paintings. Published by the CCA in Arabic, English and Italian at the end of the treatment, the book describes the Amiriya Project, documents the work phases, analyses the original working process and the final results obtained in the conservation of the cycle of wall paintings that adorn the Prayer Hall. The volume is accompanied by a catalogue of the decorative elements of the cycle and technical forms illustrating types of deterioration. 

The text is available for download in English and Italian.


Download AlRadi_Nardi_Zizola_Amiriya Madrasa_2005eng.pdf (16.03 MB)
Download AlRadi_Nardi_Zizola_Amiriya Madrasa_2005ita.pdf (15.93 MB)

Zeugma Mosaics Restoration Project


Cassio, A., Nardi, R. and Schneider, K.

2005


During the summer 2000 rescue excavation of the site of Zeugma in Turkey, about 800 square meters of floor mosaics were removed from site and then taken to the Museum of Gaziantep. In 2001 CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica of Rome with funds from the PHI, Packard Humanities Institute, began a conservation treatment planned in order to have the mosaics ready for museum display. This paper describe the techniques used for re-laying on panels, cleaning, restoring and protecting the mosaics.


Download Cassio_Nardi et al_Zeugma mosaics restoration project_ICCM 2002 .pdf (576.99 KB)

The Documentation during conservation of the mosaics of Zeugma, Turkey


De Felice, G.

2005


A large and complex operation such as the one implemented in Zeugma, Turkey, must be supported by an efficient management plan. A key element of such a plan is detailed, integrated and digitized documentation. This will report the current state of conservation, technical and ancient features, and conservation treatments. Problems, solutions and techniques used will describe the documentation implemented during the intervention in progress on 800 m2 of mosaics.


Download De Felice_The documentation during conservation_ICCM 2002.pdf (448.65 KB)

The Conservation of Zeugma


Nardi, R.

2005


The ancient town of Zeugma on the river Euphrates in South Anatolia, Turkey, was partially inundated during the year 2000 by the new Birecik Dam. In this context, the Packard Humanities Institute organized in co-ordination with the Turkish Authorities an international program for emergency archaeological rescue operations, based on excavation, and on site conservation. This paper reports the operations implemented by 25 professional conservators from CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, in charge of the conservation management. Field assistance to the archaeologists, first aid during excavation, preventive conservation, protection, reburial and "risks mitigation" of the flooded area are some of the operations that are presented. A two-year maintenance program is also described.


Download Nardi_The conservation of Zeugma_ICCM 2002.pdf (745.29 KB)

Conservation and Maintenance of Floor Mosaics in Archaeological Areas


Zizola, C.

2005


In recent years, in the field of conservation and protection of excavation areas, there has been a growing conviction that preventive conservation – especially maintenance – is one of the most suitable tools for effective and extensive conservation, as it is the most practicable in cost-benefit terms. This discipline, which has only recently appeared on the conservation horizon, has its origins in antiquity. It offers a valid reply to the disproportion between the exigencies of conserving an ever-increasing amount of heritage and the growing demand for access by new generations of visitors. In this article, techniques for the conservation and maintenance of mosaics in situ in archaeological areas will be discussed. This will be done by revisiting the sources and describing the modern techniques, proposing a methodological approach and supplying evaluations of the techniques, costs and results obtained. Archaeological mosaics displayed in museums, albeit numerous and not without maintenance problems themselves, will not be discussed, as they call for different conservation considerations and treatment techniques.


Download Zizola_Conservation and maintenance of floor mosaics_ICCM 2002.pdf (909.74 KB)

La conservazione e il restauro delle pitture murali della Madrasa Amiriya, Radà, Yemen


Zizola, C.

2005


This article describes in Italian the restoration of the wall paintings of the Amirya madrasa, one of the most significant ancient structures of the city of Radà, in the north of Yemen. The building was commissioned by the sultan Amir bin Abd al-Wahhab of the Tahirid Dinasty, in 1504. Richly decorated on the interior, the building contains elaborate and brightly colored tempera wall paintings in the prayer hall. They were painted on gypsum plaster and are surrounded by an intricately carved stucco frieze. The paintings cover most of the walls and fill all six domes, some 600 mof surface. They represent a unique example of Islamic decorative motifs, and act as a synthesis of 500 years of wall-painting tradition in Yemen. The restoration treatment of the paintings in the prayer hall, performed by the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, was the final phase of a complex program of recovery and conservation of the monument, which had been heavily damaged by earthquakes and 500 years of neglect. It was carried out completely with traditional techniques and materials and with great ethical care in a joint program directed by Prof. Selma al-Radi, and financed by the governments of Italy, the Netherlands and Yemen.


Download Zizola_2005_La conservazione ed il restauro delle pitture murali della Madrasa Amiriya Yemen.pdf (958.52 KB)

Aperto per Restauro. Comunicare la conservazione


Costanzi Cobau, A.

2004


In September 2001, a restoration worksite was opened in the Salone of the Palazzo Nuovo of the Capitoline Museums to treat two Roman statues from Hadrian's Villa: the Old Centaur and the Young Centaur. During the restoration, performed by the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, the Salone of the museum was not closed to the public. We seized the opportunity to show all the phases of the work: a platform was equipped for the conservators to work on, and various cultural activities were organized at the same time in order to foster understanding of the treatment. The name "Open for Restoration" was given to the worksite and those related initiatives. This paper describes in Italian the initiatives organized during this conservation program.


Download Costanzi Cobau_2004_Aperto per restauro.pdf (1.05 MB)

Una parola per...il cantiere di restauro aperto al pubblico


Costanzi Cobau, A.

2003


L'articolo presenta la strategia di comunicazione con il pubblico adottata nel corso del cantiere svolto dal CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, ai Musei Capitolini nel 2003. Nel cantiere di restauro e conservazione dei due Centauri nel Salone del Museo si é cancellato il vecchio "chiuso per restauro" per sostituirlo con "aperto per restauro". Sono state realizzate diverse iniziative, tra cui concorsi letterari e fotografici per ragazzi, pannelli illustrativi e uno spazio dedicato nel sito web dei Musei.


Download Aperto per restauro_rid1.pdf (5.01 MB)

Zeugma: l’intervento di conservazione, 2000-2003


Nardi, R.

2003


Zeugma è il nome dato a due città, Apamea e Seleucia, fondate da Seleuco I (312-281 a.C.), sulle rive opposte del fiume Eufrate nel sud est dell’Anatolia, Turchia. Il sito, individuato nel 1970 dall’archeologo tedesco Jorg Wagner, è stato oggetto negli anni ottanta e novanta di alcune indagini archeologiche, condotte da David Kennedy dell’Università di Western Australia, da Catherine Abadie-Reynal dell’Università di La Rochelle e dal Ministero della Cultura della Turchia - Museo di Gaziantep. Negli stessi anni, Zeugma si è trovata coinvolta nel grande progetto di sfruttamento idroelettrico della regione, che ha comportato la costruzione di alcune dighe. Una di queste, la diga di Birecick, con il suo invaso, avrebbe durante l’estate del 2000 sommerso il 30% della superficie dell’antica città. A maggio del 2000, grazie anche agli eccezionali ritrovamenti di reperti mobili e di due ville riccamente decorate da affreschi e mosaici, gli sforzi di un editore di un giornale di Gaziantep riescono a far breccia nell’attenzione della stampa internazionale e la richiesta di aiuto per Zeugma inizia a fare rapidamente il giro del mondo. A raccogliere l’appello è il Packard Humanities Institute (PHI), con sede in California, che mette immediatamente a disposizione le risorse economiche ed umane necessarie ad organizzare e coordinare insieme al Ministero della Cultura della Turchia un piano di azione immediata.


Download Nardi_2003_Zeugma intervento di conservazione.pdf (136.7 KB)

The Bronze Mars of Zeugma: marginal notes on its discovery and conservation treatment


Nardi, R. and Onal, M.

2003


A bronze sculpture of Mars, the Roman God of War, was found at Zeugma in the course of the 1999-2000 excavation campaign. It undoubtedly represents one of the most interesting and spectacular finds discovered so far in this city on the banks of the Euphrates, in southern Anatolia, Turkey. In the brief presentation below, some preliminary information about the sculpture and its discovery will be provided, as well as an overview of current operations for its conservation and restoration. It is hoped that the statue will be ready for public viewing at the end of 2002.


Download Nardi Onal_2003_The Bronze Mars of Zeugma.pdf (92.82 KB)

Il restauro conservativo del mosaico di Quintus Calpurnius Eutyches-Zeugma


Zizola, C.

2003


In October 2002 at Zeugma, Turkey, due to an exceptional lowering of the water level of the artificial lake for technical reasons by the direction of the Birecik dam, one of the largest mosaics ever found there came to light. Being in an unexcavated area, it had not been found during investigations in prior years.  It is a figured polychrome mosaic of 75 m2. According to local accounts, it had suffered from an attempted theft in the 1970s, which had succeeded only in part, as discovered later on the site. Two figured panels in the center of the pavement are surrounded by complex, elaborate geometric designs. The mosaic's name derives from one of the Greek inscriptions bearing the name of Quintus Calpurnius Eutyches. This article illustrates the technical aspects of the detachment and conservation treatment of the mosaic.


Download Zizola_2003_Il restauro conservativo del mosaico di Quintus Calpurnius Eutyches-Zeugma.pdf (120.23 KB)

La conservazione e il restauro dei mosaici di Zeugma


Nardi, R.

2002


The ancient city of Zeugma on the banks of the Euphrates in Turkey, was partially flooded in 2000 by the new Birecik dam. In May of 2000, the Packard Humanities Institute (PHI), in coordination with authorities of the Turkish Ministry of Culture, initiated an international rescue program based on a "targeted" archaeological investigation and a plan for conservation in situ: the Zeugma Archaeological Project (ZAP 2000); this was an emergency operation intended to increase topographical knowledge of the city and safeguard the finds before total flooding. The program also involved the restoration of everything that had been excavated and removed from Zeugma in the course of previous digs. The CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, was asked to plan and implement the conservation and restoration program. Starting in July 2000 through November of the same year, a group of 25 professional Italian and Turkish conservators carried out the program during and after the archaeological excavation. Subsequently, the same group worked on the restoration of 800 m2 of mosaics removed from Zeugma. The volume describes the various operations performed, with particular reference to the mosaics.


Download Nardi_2002_La conservazione e il restauro dei mosaici di Zeugma.pdf (2.85 MB)

Per una carta della conservazione del mosaico


Nardi, R.

2001


Da più di 40 anni gli specialisti della conservazione dei siti archeologici si riuniscono per discutere fatti e temi inerenti il patrimonio. Questo sforzo comune si è concretizzato in pubblicazioni quasi sempre corredate di dichiarazioni conclusive che riportavano linee guida metodologiche e raccomandazioni. Da 25 anni il campo professionale si è arricchito di un nuovo strumento specialistico, the International Committee for the Conservation of Mosaics (ICCM). Questo comitato si riunisce ogni tre anni in un convegno che ha prodotto negli anni una consistente letteratura, oggi strumento fondamentale di riferimento per la professione. Allo stesso tempo, al termine di alcuni di questi incontri sono state redatte delle raccomandazioni metodologiche atte a facilitare il raggiungimento dell'obiettivo comune: la conservazione del mosaico. Allo stesso tempo, la vita quotidiana sul campo degli addetti ai lavori è segnata dalle difficoltà grandi e piccole di tutti i giorni. Prima tra tutti quella della mancanza di un testo unico di riferimento al quale rifarsi in caso di incertezza metodologica o comunque l'assenza di uno strumento utilizzabile come documento nel quale tecniche e metodologie siano codificate. Obiettivo del lavoro qui presentato è quello di produrre una analisi preliminare dei materiali già esistenti sotto forma di "raccomandazioni", e a far nascere una piazza comune in grado di fungere da catalizzatore di un dibattito professionale utile a codificare principi e metodologie e a produrre una carta di riferimento.


Download Nardi_2000_Per una carta della conservazione del mosaico.pdf (140.64 KB)

Zeugma Archaeological Project 2000 - The Conservation Program


Nardi, R. and Schneider, K.

2001


'Preserving Archaeological Remains in situ?' (PARIS2) conference addressed three main themes: to review recent research; to examine the relative successes and consequences of decisions – especially those taken in the last decade or so – to preserve particular sites in situ; and to try to identify strategic directions for future research into the protection of our cultural heritage. The paper presented by R. Nardi and K. Schneider tells the story of the ancient town of Zeugma on the river Euphrates in South Anatolia, Turkey, when this was partially inundated during the year 2000 by the new Birecik Dam. In this context, the Packard Humanities Institute organized in co-ordination with the Turkish Authorities an international program for emergency archaeological rescue operations, based on excavation and on site conservation. This paper reports the operations implemented during 6 months by 20 professional conservators from Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, CCA, in charge of conservation. Field assistance to the archaeologists, first aid during excavation, preventive conservation, protection, reburial and "risks mitigation" of the area for the flooding, are some of the operations presented.


Download Nardi Schneider_2001_Zeugma archaeological project 2000.pdf (209.46 KB)

Archaeological mosaics: from detachment and transport to museums and storerooms to in situ conservation practice


Nardi, R. and Zizola, C.

2001


In the course of a few decades, the discipline of conservation of archaeological mosaics has matured quickly: from detachment and transport to museums and storerooms (done systematically as the only form of safeguard), it has arrived at the theoretical and methodological formulation of in situ conservation, flanked by the development of an approach for damage control. Today, conservation in situ is no longer an experimental field but a well-developed discipline, with a wide range of application, good practice and solid technique. Intervention methods such as detachment and removal of artifacts from the site are seen as urgent remedies to be used, after careful evaluation, only in cases where the risk of loss or destruction cannot otherwise be avoided (risks from theft, urbanization, road works) and when in situ consolidation and conservation have been shown to be ineffective. This paper trace the evolution towards in situ conservation and the application of methodologies infused with respect for history and the nature of the components, with minimum interventions and preventive conservation through various restoration charters, international recommendations and in the professional literature.


Download Nardi Zizola_2011_Archaeological mosaics. From detachment and transport to museums and storerooms to in situ conservation practice.pdf (138.63 KB)

Tourism management of archaeological sites within an urban context: a balanced compromise between preventive conservation and cultural use


Nardi, R.

2000


The real emergency today and even more tomorrow, will not be in those sites in the urban environment, known, visited and sometimes also maintained, but in the tens of thousands of sites where decay and destruction are everyday events because they have been abandoned, or because they are poorly managed. Sites that yesterday enjoyed a “a certain oblivion”, but today are entering more and more into the big circuit of so called “cultural tourism”. Everyday cultural property suffers irreversible damage due to the lack of even minimal protective measures. This article presents three initiatives carried out by the Centro di Conservazione Archeologica in the field of training, maintenance and raising awareness. The first initiative is relative to a training programme for site directors, that CCA organised for UNESCO financed by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The second initiative is related to the study and application of techniques of maintenance of archaeological structures in sites open to the public. The third and last initiative concerns the raising awareness to themes of fragility of the cultural heritage and its safeguarding. An exhibition entitled “S.O.S. Save Our Sites” made up of 26 panels, divided into three sections, in English and Arabic organised by CCA for the Amman Office of UNESCO is presented.


Download Nardi_2000_Tourism management of archaeological sites .pdf (115.98 KB)

Conservation of monuments: where are we going?


Nardi, R.

2000


The end of the millennium and the beginning of another is an opportunity to reflect upon the state of our profession: the conservation of our cultural heritage. This paper looks at the experiences of the Centro di Conservazione Archeologica (CCA), a private firm, active for 15 years on public commission in the conservation of monuments and archaeological sites. Initially, the work of CCA was devoted solely to restoration/conservation, with the use of so-called modern techniques and materials having a significant impact on the original fabric. Today, the materials and techniques used are almost exclusively traditional (in the historic sense) and have minimal impact on the monument. In addition, our present sphere of activity is much wider and, alongside actual conservation work, we are asked to carry out documentation, training courses, maintenance and public information initiatives. Thus we recognize that our profession has finally abandoned the restoration approach for a new path in the direction of preventive conservation. proceedings of a joint conference organized by English Heritage and the United Kingdom Institute for Conservation, London, 20-22 May 1998 / Fidler, John (ed.); Teutonico, Jeanne-Marie (ed.).


Download Nardi_2000_Conservation of Monuments.pdf (112.52 KB)

La sensibilizzazione del pubblico per la salvaguardia del patrimonio culturale


Nardi, R.

1999


Il panorama degli interventi di conservazione si è arricchito negli ultimi anni di un nuovo fenomeno: l'apertura dei cantieri al pubblico e la realizzazione di operazioni tecniche "in diretta". Questo fenomeno rappresenta qualcosa di più profondo della semplice apertura fisica di spazi di lavoro e si pone risultati più ambiziosi della semplice "spettacolarizzazione" degli interventi. Il CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, negli ultimi quindici anni ha aperto i propri cantieri al pubblico ogni qualvolta le condizioni lo permettevano. Questa scelta è stata determinata dalla convinzione che rendendo il pubblico cosciente dei rischi di deperimento che il patrimonio corre quotidianamente e della difficoltà e  dei costi che comporta rimediare a questi rischi, si possa lentamente educarlo al rispetto delle opere (prevenire vandalismo e uso inadeguato) e farlo partecipe alla loro salvaguardia (creare consenso).


Download Nardi_1999_La sensibilizzazione del pubblico per la salvaguardia del patrimonio culturale.pdf (130.27 KB)

Going public: a new approach to conservation education


Nardi, R.

1999


Bringing conservation projects out into the open under the eye of public scrutiny is a recent phenomenon that has been taken up by a growing number of museums and heritage sites. The program described here is one of the most ambitious to date and makes clear why such an approach goes well beyond the simple explanation of technical treatments to have a resounding impact on public perception and appreciation of broader heritage questions.

Available for download in English and Italian.


Download Nardi_1999_Involving the public in conservation- a solution to increase awareness.pdf (1.16 MB)
Download Nardi_1999_Coinvolgere il pubblico nella conservazione.pdf (130.98 KB)

Ostia Antica. Piazzale delle Corporazioni. The maintenance of the mosaic floors


Nardi, R.

1999


In 1998 the Superintendence of Ostia began a program for the conservation, protection and maintenance of monuments with open air mosaic floors. The Termae dei Cisiarii was the first monument to be treated (1994-96). In 1998, with the introduction of a special law for the 2000 Jubilee, a conservation program was created for the Piazzale delle Corporazioni. This program included the maintenance of the floors and indirect measures of protection such as new paths for visitors. Piazzale delle Corporazioni was one of the main squares of Ostia and is still today a key transit node for visitors. The ancient monument now consists of remains of the walls and about 1900 square metres of pavement. Of these, about 1000 sq. metres are mosaic, some in situ, others detached and laid on a cement base during the 1960s. The remainder is reconstructed in cement. This paper presents the maintenance program of all the floors, carried out during June and July 1998. The techniques, time and costs of the treatment, the conception of informing the public as the work progresses and the planned measures for protection and future maintenance are described.


Download Nardi_1999_Ostia Antica Piazzale delle Corporazioni.pdf (102.73 KB)

The conservation and restoration of the mosaic floor of the Bizantine Church (Western) in the Nabatean town of Mamshit in the Negev desert


Zizola, C.

1999


During 1994 the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, carried out the in situ conservation of the mosaic floors of the Bizantine  Church (Western Church) in the nabatean town of  Mamshit in the Negev Desert. This was a polichrome mosaic of about 80 square meters with geometrical, figurative decorations plus three inscriptions. The two months intervention on site was carried out by a team of 8 conservators and was implemented by using lime based techniques of in situ consolidation. A detailed documentation was carried out to record the consistency of the mosaic, the state of conservation, the treatments carried out.
When the intervention was almost completed the entire church was vandalized one night. The mosaic was heavily damaged and almost all figures and inscriptions destroyed. Local authorities immediately decided to answer with a strong political message and decided for a complete reconstruction of the mosaic. This was possible thanks to the accurate documentation carried out during the conservation intervention. The remaining mosaic was partially lifted, shipped to Rome, restored (or better re-made) and, after two years work, it was brougth back and relayed on site. This paper describes all those phases and concludes presenting the actual programme for future protection and maintenance on the monument.


Download Zizola_1999_The conservation and restoration Mamshit.pdf (125.15 KB)

Conservazione e restauro. I mosaici


Nardi, R.

1998


In questo articolo si ripercorre il processo evolutivo che ha portato il concetto di "restauro del mosaico" verso la maturazione e l'attuale codificazione di un nuovo approccio chiamato "conservazione del mosaico", procedendo da un'analisi del significato che nella storia è stato attribuito alla decorazione musiva. Col mutare della percezione del valore delle opere dell'antichità, il restauratore é diventato conservatore: il manufatto non viene più "trasformato" e il messaggio dall'antico è mantenuto, evidenziato e trasmesso.


Download Nardi_1998_Conservazione e restauro. I mosaici..pdf (58.54 KB)

La gestione e la manutenzione dei siti archeologici con mosaici


Nardi, R.

1998


Da molti anni a questa parte abbiamo assistito alla crescita  progressiva di una coscienza critica nei confronti del modo di gestire il patrimonio archeologico, quasi sempre cieco verso il suo penoso stato di conservazione. Si è così sviluppata una lenta maturazione che ha prodotto una attitudine costruttiva basata su una accresciuta capacità di lettura dei problemi. Primi risultati diretti di questa evoluzione sono gli interessanti seppur rari casi di riorganizzazione di siti archeologici che lentamente si realizzano e la disponibilità di informazioni tecniche che ci permettono di teorizzare proposte pronte per essere sperimentate sul campo. Nell’articolo si propongono alcune indicazioni metodologiche che possano essere tradotte in piani operativi sperimentali.


Download Nardi_1998_La gestione e la manutenzione dei siti.pdf (100.75 KB)

The conservation of the mosaics in the thermae of the Cisiarii: technical report


Nardi, R. and Zizola, C.

1998


The project for the conservation of the mosaics of the thermae of the Cisiarii represents the practical application of one of the projects conceived in the framework of ICCROM's Forum project. The aim of this programme is to identify a safeguard policy which, once tested on a single archaeological monument, may then constitute a prototype applicable to the conservation of the entire site. The conservation project in question was developed by carrying out a direct intervention on the mosaic floors of the thermae of the Cisiarii and by applying preventive measures of safeguard. Concurrently, major emphasis was placed on offering information to the public in such a way so as to make it an active partner in the project. In this report we will describe all the phases of the project, its technical aspects and its methodological  principles. In conclusion, we will present the results of this experience.


Download Nardi-Zizola_1998_The conservation of the mosaics in the Thermae of the Cisiarii: technical report.pdf (107.45 KB)

Conservazione e restauro. La pietra


Nardi, R. and Zizola, C.

1998


Per secoli, fino ad epoca recente, il restauro è stata una attività prevalentemente volta alla cura materiale del supporto lapideo destinata al ripristino della sola consistenza della materia.Attualmente, partendo dal presupposto tecnico del restauro , la conservazione dei materiali lapidei si pone come obiettivo, oltre al recupero e la cura della materia del supporto, lo studio, la lettura, l'interpretazione, la trasmissione e la valorizzazione dei dati storici registrati sulle superfici monumentali. In questo articolo si ripercorre il processo evolutivo che ha portato verso la maturazione e l'attuale codificazione  della disciplina della conservazione dei materiali lapidei.


Download Nardi-Zizola_1998_Conservazione e restauro. La pietra..pdf (75.25 KB)

Politica del restauro e della conservazione musiva: esempi a confronto


Zizola, C.

1998


L’articolo presenta due esempi di  intervento su mosaici di scavo opposti tra loro, nei presupposti e nelle tecniche di realizzazione, eseguiti  nel Parco archeologico di Zippori, in Israele,  a distanza di 8 anni uno dall'altro. Il primo risale al 1987 ed è stato realizzato attraverso lo stacco e la riapplicazione in situ di un singolo pavimento. Il secondo, realizzato nel 1995 dal Centro di Conservazione Archeologica di Roma, ha riguardato 12 pavimenti a mosaico ed è stato eseguito secondo i principi e le metodologie della conservazione in situ.


Download Zizola_1998_Politica del restauro e della conservazione musiva Esempi a confronto.pdf (107.75 KB)

The conservation of mosaics in situ


Nardi, R.

1997


The author stresses the importance of understanding the historical meaning of the different techniques employed in the past when treating archaeological mosaics in the present, during lifting, exhibiting or remounting, because these are directly related to how mosaics were or are historically appreciated by the public and the professionals that work directly with them. This is evidenced by the shift from the almost systematic lifting of mosaics to in situ conservation, application of principles of minimum intervention, reproducing antique formulations, and planning periodical maintenance. The function of the restorer is contrasted to his function in the past; from this point onwards he should conserve and preserve rather than transform mosaics, that is, the restorer should become the conservator. In this light, a list of new responsibilities demonstrates a new approach, where indirect actions prove to be more effective than direct treatments. Most importantly, the author provides his definition of in situ conservation, affirming that knowledge of the composition and deterioration mechanisms of mosaics is necessary for their direct treatment, when needed, which should be developed together with a maintenance plan. The discussion focused on this change of mentality and the visibility of its effects, as well as the definition of public.


Download Nardi_1997_The Conservation of Mosaics in Situ.pdf (96.62 KB)

Conservation: a direct route to the protection and study of monuments


Nardi, R.

1997


In this paper, we describe the experience of a private group of conservators working on public commissions in the sphere of monument and stone preservation. Three case studies of treatments performed from 1982-1992 are presented. In describing this experience, carried out in a very limited geographical area, we discuss the structure of the group, its strategy, (ethical and commercial), the commissioning agencies and the way work is assigned. We also examine the types of professionals who contributed to implementing the projects in respect of their technical-scientific training and their institutional positions.


Download Nardi_1997_Conservation A direct route to the protection and study of monuments.pdf (111.34 KB)

Zippori, Israel. In situ conservation of a floor mosaic in polychrome stones and glass paste


Albini, R. and Zizola, C.

1996


During the 1991 excavation campaign of the University of South Florida, directed by Prof. J. Strange, in the National Park of Zippori in Israel, archeologists brought to light the main room of a public Roman building. The floor of the 100 square meter room is a polychrome mosaic dating from the III century A.D. As soon as it was excavated, the mosaic was protected by a temporary covering until the conservation intervention could begin. During the summer of 1995, the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, carried out an in situ intervention using conservation techniques that respect both the materials and the technique of the original execution of the mosaic. Synthetic lifting materials were not used. This article will describe the methods and techniques that were used during the intervention. Special emphasis is given to those aspects that are peculiar to in situ conservation, in terms of planning and investment of human and economic resources.


Download Albini Zizola_1996_Zippori In situ conservation of a floor mosaic in polychrome stone and glass paste.pdf (131.66 KB)

Mamshit, Israel, and San Paolino alla Regola, Rome: what cooperation or interference between archaeologist and conservator can achieve


Albini, R., Costanzi Cobau, A. and Zizola, C.

1996


Archaeological sites are important for the messages that they convey from the past. Everything in archaeology must be devoted to the recovery, preservation, presentation and transmission of that message. Optimum results will be obtained when all professionals involved cooperate towards this common objective. This paper presents two cases of on-site conservation; frescoes of the 3rd century AD at Mamshit, Israel, and frescoes and mosaics of the 2nd century AD at San Paolino alla Regola, Rome. The first of these treatments was carried out many years after the excavation and represents an example of "maximum intervention-minimum efficiency". In the second case study, collaboration between conservator and archaeologist from the beginning of the excavation made it possible to follow the principle of "minimum intervention-maximum efficiency". Both the treatments presented used local materials similar to the originals. Preventive measures and maintenance programmes have been set up for future conservation.


Download Zizola Costanzi-Cobau Albini_1996_Rome San Paolino alla Regola and Mamshit Israel.pdf (151.05 KB)

Ostia antica. La conservazione dei mosaici delle Terme dei Cisiarii


Albini, R., Costanzi Cobau, A. and Zizola, C.

1996


Il progetto di conservazione dei mosaici delle terme dei Cisiarii rappresenta un'applicazione pratica di uno dei progetti concepiti nell'ambito dell'iniziativa dell'ICCROM (International Center for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) denominata Forum. Analoghi interventi sono stati realizzati in altri siti archeologici in Italia, Israele, Cipro. Obiettivo di queste iniziative è quello di individuare una politica di salvaguardia che, sperimentata su un solo monumento archeologico, potrà in seguito costituire un prototipo applicabile alla conservazione dell'intero sito. Il progetto di conservazione è stato sviluppato applicando un intervento preliminare diretto sui pavimenti e misure preventive di salvaguardia. Parallelamente è stato dato grande risalto all'informazione del pubblico in modo tale che divenisse parte attiva del programma. Descriveremo in questo articolo tutte le fasi del progetto, gli aspetti tecnici e i principi metodologici. In conclusione verranno presentati i risultati di questa sperimentazione.


Download Albini Costanzi-Cobau Zizola_1996_Ostia Antica La conservazione dei mosaici delle Terme dei Cisiarii.pdf (109.99 KB)

The on site conservation of archaeological mosaics: the case of the building of the Nile in Zippori, Israel


Costanzi Cobau, A. and Nardi, R.

1996


This article describes the on-site conservation of 12 polychrome floor mosaics found in a 3rd-cent. A.D public building in Zippori, Israel. The intervention is part of a broader project directed by the National Parks Authority of Israel, and includes the construction of fixed architectural roofing, the consequent temporary protection of the mosaics and sealing the trenches left from the removal of the original masonry walls. The conservation work was carried out allowing the public to watch the work "live".  This paper describes the treatments on the mosaics and comments on various aspects.  Starting with technical procedures, we will then consider the principles and the objectives behind the choice of the methods followed and we will conclude with some general reflections.


Download Costanzi-Cobau Nardi_1996_The on Site Conservation of Archaeological Mosaics The case of the building of the Nile in Zippori Israel.pdf (251.69 KB)

La conservazione dei siti archeologici: strategie, tecniche e strumenti. Il caso del mosaico


de Guichen, G. and Nardi, R.

1996


Le scelte maturate nell'ambito di un dibattito culturale indirizzano le tecniche operative per la conservazione del mosaico. Per meglio comprendere questo principio, in questo articolo si ripercorre l'evoluzione metodologica nel campo del restauro  di materiali diversi dal mosaico per descrivere la situazione attuale nel settore del mosaico e analizzare le prospettive future della conservazione.
 


Download de Guichen Nardi_1996_La conservazione dei siti archeologici.pdf (116.4 KB)

Zippori, Israel: the conservation of the mosaics of the building of the Nile


Nardi, R.

1996


Twelve polychrome floor mosaics were found in a 3rd century AD public building in Zippori, Israel, including one of extraordinary quality representing Nilotic scenes. Conservation of the mosaics was carried out in situ as part of a broader project directed by the National Parks Authority of Israel. The public was allowed to watch the conservation work as it happened. This paper describes the treatment of the mosaics: starting with the technical procedures, it then considers the principles and objectives behind the choice of the methods followed and concludes with some general observations.


Download Nardi_1996_Zippori Israel The conservation of the building of the Nile mosaic.pdf (166.29 KB)

The conservation of the atrium of the Capitoline Museum


Nardi, R.

1996


This paper presents the conservation program of the Atrium of the Capitoline Museum in Rome and of the collection of classical sculptures housed on the ground floor. The work was carried out leaving the site open to the public and various initiatives were organized to inform visitors. New equipment was specially designed for this project: planning, documentation, historic and archival research gave the required information to program the intervention. Cleaning was carried out using atomized water and mechanical tools; lime-based materials were used for consolidation, stuccoing and protection. Following the conservation intervention a maintenance program is currently being implemented.

 

Download Nardi_1996_The Conservation of the Atrium of the Capitoline Museum.pdf (155.61 KB)

The treatment of mosaics in situ


Nardi, R.

1996


The author stresses the importance of understanding the historical meaning of the different techniques employed in the past when treating archaeological mosaics in the present, during lifting, exhibiting or remounting, because these are directly related to how mosaics were or are historically appreciated by the public and the professionals that work directly with them. This is evidenced by the shift from the almost systematic lifting of mosaics to in situ conservation, application of principles of minimum intervention, reproducing antique formulations, and planning periodical maintenance. The function of the restorer is contrasted to his function in the past; from this point onwards he should conserve and preserve rather than transform mosaics, that is, the restorer should become the conservator. In this light, a list of new responsibilities demonstrates a new approach, where indirect actions prove to be more effective than direct treatments. Most importantly, the author provides his definition of in situ conservation, affirming that knowledge of the composition and deterioration mechanisms of mosaics is necessary for their direct treatment, when needed, which should be developed together with a maintenance plan. The discussion focused on this change of mentality and the visibility of its effects, as well as the definition of public.


Download Nardi_1996_The Treatment of Mosaics in Situ.pdf (124.78 KB)

Open-heart restoration: raising the awareness of the public


Nardi, R.

1995


In recent years, restoration projects have more and more often been open to the public. We may say that, in general, there has been an increase in the attention paid by the world of conservation to informing the media and the general public. In this paper we will examine this phenomenon in the light of the experience of the CCA, Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, which in the last ten years has opened its restoration worksites to the public whenever circumstances permitted. Underlying the enterprise of informing visitors is the consideration that every time the public is involved, the results are positive, in both the short and the long term:  in the short term, with a large participation in the initiative; in the long term, with an increased awareness on the subject of conservation. Thus if we believe that the protection of the cultural heritage must be obtained through systems of prevention, then the raising of public awareness is a key element: it will be the citizens themselves who, one day, will feel themselves to be participants in the responsibility and pleasure of protecting the cultural heritage.


Download Nardi_1995_Open heart restoration 2.pdf (103.23 KB)

Preventive conservation and restoration: a matter of costs


La Rocca E., Nardi R.

1994


In the treatment of seriously decayed monuments, the objective of the conservator is to return the monument to the point where ordinary maintenance is once again possible. One of the main difficulties is persuading administrations to approve programmes for the maintenance of newly restored monuments. Conservators have to change their language if they want to be understood. One of the strong points of maintenance is how much can be saved by developing a maintenance programme which avoids the need to repeat expensive restoration every 10 years. The authors present the maintenance programme planned for the structures of the Atrium of the Capitoline Museum and the collection of Roman sculptures on display, restored after two years of work.
  

Available for download in English and Italian.


Download La Rocca and Nardi_1994_Preventive conservation and restoration.pdf (105.49 KB)
Download La Rocca Nardi_1994_Conservazione preventiva e restauro una questione di costi.pdf (100.36 KB)

Preventive conservation of mosaics at archaeological sites


Nardi, R.

1994


The state of preservation of mosaics in Mediterranean contries can be described with adjectives that range from "terrible" to "catastrophic". This article tries to analyze the problem and proposes some solutions. The problem can be solved only by developping a programme of planning and safekeeping, i.e. by affirming the concept of preventive conservation. Such an approach cannot be improvised: it can only develop as the result of a careful educational process that will effectively train future archaeologists and administrators.

Also available for download in italian.


Download Nardi_1994_Preventive conservation of mosaics at archaeological sites.pdf (863.43 KB)
Download Nardi_1994_Conservazione preventiva del mosaico nei siti archeologici.pdf (94.15 KB)

The first step in preventive conservation: the analysis of the problem


Nardi, R.

1994


The first step in planning preventive conservation measures is to collect the information and to analyse the problems. This must be done in a systematic way, with a method capable to highlight the various components of the problem to help anybody involved in decisional tasks to operate in a proper way. Only when this operation is concluded it will be possible to plan a project capable to answer to the real needs of conservation of the monument. In this paper are presented two examples of analysis of problems concerning two different Roman mosaics, both in situ and not restored.


Download Nardi_1994_First step in preventive conservation..pdf (1.36 MB)

In situ consolidation of a Roman fresco near Ein Yael, Jerusalem


Costanzi Cobau, A.

1993


In the spring of 1990, the Department of Antiquities of Israel carried out an in situ conservation intervention of a Roman fresco from a villa near Ein Yael, located in the vicinity of Jerusalem. The intervention was carried out according to the following principles: in situ consolidation of the fresco; use of products compatible with the original components; application of techniques similar to the ancient ones; use of local products and equipment, roofing and protection against water as preventive measures; and a maintenance program. In the spring of 1992, an examination of the structure confirmed the highly effective intervention.

Available for download in English and Italian.


Download Costanzi Cobau_1993_In situ consolidation of a Roman fresco..pdf (113.08 KB)
Download Costanzi-Cobau_1993_Conservazione in situ di un affresco romano Ein Yael Gerusalemme.pdf (114.28 KB)

In situ consolidation of mosaics with techniques based on the use of lime


Costanzi Cobau, A. and Nardi, R.

1992


The concept of the mosaic as an isolated object is, we hope, now obsolete, given the value duly attributed to the inextricable relationship between the artifact and its context. This value is given material expression in maintaining the mosaic in situ, with all the technical consequences this choice brings with it. This article present an outline of in situ consolidation using lime-based techniques. The use of lime is not a simple technical operation but the result of centuries of practice, of knowledge handed down, of tradition.


Download Costanzi Cobau-Nardi_1992_In situ consolidation of mosaic with techniques based on the use of lime.pdf (96.51 KB)

Esempi di grafica assistita da computer a fini di documentazione


Nardi, R.

1992


The graphic documentation of the state of conservation of ancient monuments, and of the conservation processes applied to them, is considered today an essential feature of a serious conservation project. However, such documentation normally produces a vast amount of large-size drawings on paper which is costly to originate and to update; furthermore, it poses serious problems as to handling, storage and consultation. These problems may be solved by the use of computer graphics which allow a rapid update and reproduction of all drawings, once the basic survey data are memorized; furthermore the storage for archival purposes is much easier, considering the small volume that the data occupy in this form. The present paper illustrates some examples, and in particular the "Arch of Septimius Severus", in Rome. In the latter case the computer drawings on which various sets of data were recorded were printed on transparent sheets; this allows to examine drawings one by one or to superimpose a small number of them, in order to explore possible relationships between two or more sets of data.


Download Nardi _1992_Una tecnica grafica assistita da computer per il disegno e archivio di documentazione archeologica.pdf (116.07 KB)

Planning as a means of preventive conservation


Nardi, R.

1992


The article presents three case studies where planning is applied to three restoration projects. The human factor is considered as one of the main factors of deterioration of cultural heritage, especially when it entails lack of organization. On the opposite hand, a planning approach is one of the best, and with no doubt more effective, tool of preventive conservation. The planning methods presented in this article range from a simple flow-chart of the different project phases to the implementation of an informatic system in managing the project.

An italian translation is also available for download.


Download Nardi_1992_Planning as a means of preventive conservation.pdf (1.89 MB)
Download Nardi_1992_La pianificazione come misura di conservazione preventiva.pdf (1.25 MB)

The Roman Forum. On-site conservation of floor surfaces during excavation


Costanzi Cobau, A.

1990


Over the last few decades the question of prevention in the field of archaeology has received widespread attention that the need for collaboration between conservator and archaeologist is taken for granted. There was a reciprocal, initial misunderstanding due mainly to various deficiencies in the training of conservators who found themselves working in (ideal) conditions far different from the ideal one they were used to in the laboratory. Here the causes of deterioration are discovered, isolated and removed. Instead, the conservator working with the archaeologist has learned to maneuver in a continually changing environment, where the causes of deterioration are directly linked to the most specific instrument of archaeology itself: the excavation. Archaeological conservation must step away from the concept of "first aid" emergency treatments and consider instead all the prevention and safeguarding operations that take into account the immediate surroundings, and generally have no evident verification.


Download Costanzi Cobau_1990_The Roman Forum. .pdf (91.79 KB)

Conservation of Archaeological Mosaics: the State of the Problem in the Light of a Recent International Course


Melucco, A., Nardi, R. and De Guichen, G.

1990


This article described the experience of the 1th International Course for the Safeguard of Archaeological Mosaics, held in Rome, 19 September - 13 October 1990. The course was organized by ICCROM and ICR (now ISCR). We feel that it could be of general interest, for it provided the means and the occasion to examine various points:

  • the state of conservation of archaeological mosaics in situ;
  • the reasons for a situation that appears extremely serious in our view, and possible conditions for improving it;
  • the relationship between specialized aspects, such as interventions on the mosaic per se, and management and conservation on the scale of the entire site;
  • professional training of directors and personnel responsible for the sites themselves;
  • the disparity of technical approach and theoretical foundation behind many proposed interventions.

Download Melucco Nardi de Guichen_1990_Conservation of Archaeological Mosaics.pdf (77.54 KB)

Critical review of the specialized literature in mosaic conservation


Nardi, R.

1990


This article present a critical review of the specialized literature as the result of a study carried out during the preparation for the first International Course on the Safeguard of Archaeological Mosaics.  Basing ourselves on the presupposition that technical texts on conservation as well as in any other professional field, are a working and updating tool which different technicians can use regardless of regional distinctions, and that they are also the bases on which new generations of professionals will train, it was decided to analyze this "tool" more in depthThe method used in this research was to carry out an analysis of the texts by emphasizing certain characteristics such as the author, its context, the topics it treats, and the areas of application.  The first part devoted to more general themes such as date of publication, language of the text, professional qualifications of the author, general characteristics of the text, was followed by a more descriptive analysis of the actual mosaic such as the type, size, the geographical position, and the causes of deterioration.  The study ends with a detailed revision of the operations described and of the technical solutions adopted.

The italian translation is also avaialable for download.


Download Nardi_1990_Critical review of the specialized literature in mosaic conservation.pdf (100.07 KB)
Download Nardi_1990_Revisione critica della letterature specializzata in conservazione del mosaico.pdf (102.73 KB)

L'Arco di Settimio Severo: indagini storiche e conservative


Nardi, R.

1984


Gli studi sull’Arco di Settimio Severo nel Foro Romano sono iniziati nel 1979 nel corso di una tesi di laurea per la cattedra di Rilievo e Analisi tecnica dei Monumenti Antichi, diretta dal Professere C.F. Giuliani, dell’Università di Roma La Sapienza. Da allora si è passati da una fase preliminare di perfezionamento metodologico alla definizione di un piano d’intervento conservativo affidato al CCA nel 1984. Alla base della ricerca è stata posta l’osservazione diretta delle superfici originali, e il trasferimento su basi grafiche analitiche di tutti i segni e le informazioni raccolte, nella consapevolezza che un intervento conservativo rappresenta una straordinaria occasione di studio di un monumento, dagli aspetti storico - archeologici a quelli puramente conservativi.


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