'Preserving Archaeological Remains in situ?' (PARIS2) conference addressed three main themes: to review recent research; to examine the relative successes and consequences of decisions – especially those taken in the last decade or so – to preserve particular sites in situ; and to try to identify strategic directions for future research into the protection of our cultural heritage. The paper presented by R. Nardi and K. Schneider tells the story of the ancient town of Zeugma on the river Euphrates in South Anatolia, Turkey, when this was partially inundated during the year 2000 by the new Birecik Dam. In this context, the Packard Humanities Institute organized in co-ordination with the Turkish Authorities an international program for emergency archaeological rescue operations, based on excavation and on site conservation. This paper reports the operations implemented during 6 months by 20 professional conservators from Centro di Conservazione Archeologica, CCA, in charge of conservation. Field assistance to the archaeologists, first aid during excavation, preventive conservation, protection, reburial and "risks mitigation" of the area for the flooding, are some of the operations presented.